ANATOMY OF ISLANDS ACTIVITIES   VIS

Section EXHIBITION: LIST OF ISLAND STATES

NEWS: Island States

ANATOMY OF ISLANDS ACTIVITIES   LASTOVO

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ANATOMY OF ISLANDS VIS


 

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NEW ISSA 2019 PROJECT
49 island states: The list of countries, areas, population and names of capitals can be viewed in the EXHIBITION section.
Information on individual island states is presented in the NEWS section.

News

24.12.2019.

HAPPY CHRISTMAS AND NEW YEAR 2020

HAPPY CHRISTMAS AND NEW YEAR 2020 wishes everyone Anatomy of  Islands   Eight years of successful work in Vis, Lastovo and other...

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10.12.2019.

THREE ISLANDS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN

THREE ISLANDS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN   Maldive Islands 298 km2 339.330 inhabitants Capital  Male Maldives, officially the Republic...

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24.11.2019.

Cuba

Cuba 100.860 km2 11.184.023 Capital Havana   If Iceland is one of the most idyllic island states, Cuba is certainly one of the most...

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22.11.2019.

Iceland

Iceland 103,125 km2 348,580 inhabitants Capital Reykjavik   Something completely peaceful! An island state with a population of...

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15.11.2019.

Ireland

Ireland 70,273 km2 4,588,252 Capital Dublin The island state of Ireland has the same population as Papua New Guinea and Croatia. Croatia is not...

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Development of the Vis Island economy in the past
Šime PERIČIĆ
(selection from original scientific article selected by Bosko Budisavljevic)
The third and final sequel

Certainly the most significant was the exploitation of the "saldarna", a fine sandy soil that was used in glass production in Murano workshops. As early as 1738, the Venetian government gave its consent to the excavation of this mineral on the island. Since then, a representative of the Murano glass workers has lived there, taking care of the sand extraction and its transmission to Venice. Digging was done in the hill between Vis and Komiža. This activity continued for decades to come. As early as the 1970s, this became a large underground excavation, with three to four entrances. The diggers, the locals, worked there under the light of pine trees. Sources show that they derived slightly more benefit from transporting sand to the loading dock. However, it is believed that some surplus shippers sometimes carried this cargo to their destination and thus made some profit. When the island first fell under Austria (1797), Girolamo Rossetti, from Venice, exported the raw material from the sand and coffee grounds there. He paid 60 ducats a year for the state. The flint land, as it was then called, was mined near Komiža and for the French administrations of the island (1807). This was confirmed in the first decades of the second Austrian administration, as evidenced by the 1829 news. which says that sand was then also exported to Murano. Once upon a time, good quality marble was dug on the island of Saints, but the quarries there until the end of XVIII. century were completely exhausted. Likewise, granite was used to pave the streets in Komiža. Some claim that in the Middle Ages there were well-known limestones burned in Slomorsko Brdo on the island.
At that time, the rule of the skin was black leather. sackcloth and, tannery clothing. In the XV. The Venetian authorities allowed the villagers of the island to tan their skin. which they were not allowed to sell but to use themselves. No. Certainly the most important was the production of fishing gear, especially small and large nets for catching small blue fish, jugs and others. Such activity was forced by the then population due to the great distance of the islands from the towns on the neighboring Dalmatian mainland.

In ancient times there were trades there. At that time, various vases and other clay pots were made on the island, as evidenced by the found ceramic furnaces. Equally, the Aseja money was made there, which presupposes the inevitable existence of suitable craftsmen and workshops. Many indications indicate that the stone-cutting and stonemasonry was already developed on the island. During the two centuries (18th and 19th), 311 craftsmen from various professions were recorded in Vis alone. Many of them are referred to only as "masters". Furthermore, in 1784 there were 18 craftsmen in Komiža - masons, blacksmiths, blacksmiths and other professions, while in 1798. in Vis there are 24, and in Komiža there are 18 craftsmen, which means that at the end of the Venetian administration there were about forty craftsmen from various professions on the island. The first figures refer to the beginning of XIX. At that time, especially for the English dominions, there were former artisans, but also calafats, textile workers, pastry chefs, who mostly came from Italy. In 1810 there were only five blacksmiths in Vis, one boilerman, 2 jewelers, three shipbuilders, 7 barrels, 5 tailors, 13 joiners and 7 butchers, a total of 53 craftsmen. When the island regained power in Austria, the flight abruptly subsided. Accordingly, in the mid-XIX. There were up to 120 craftsmen from various professions on the island, who, it is assumed, were quite employed if one judged by the state of craftsmanship. In 1912, a much more scarce situation occurred on the island. At that time, there were 11 bakers, 5 pastry chefs, 2 millers, 11 carpenters, blacksmiths, 2 goldsmiths, 18 joiners, 6 woodworkers and 11 barrels. municipality.
In addition to artisanal, there were attempts at higher-level processing on the island, beginning sometime in the mid-18th century. century. Namely, it is known that in 1760. the Foretic family from southern Italy brought to the island 20 smoker workers, who started to extract resin from the pine trees (at Bisevo). They say she was of better quality than the one made in the Kingdom of Naples. In the interwar area, a small gypsum factory operated on the island. In 1922, a factory for the production of essential oil (Mirava dd) was established in Komiža, followed by the steam distillery of lavender, essential oil.

It is well-known that the fishermen from excess of Salis salted large quantities of anchovies as early as the 15th century. century. There were many small houses (barracks) in Palagruža where fishermen from excess were salted by blue fish. In the three years 1896-1898. the three factories on the island salted several million anchovies, anchovies and mackerel, in addition to their canning. This then accounted for far more than half of the total salted fish in Dalmatia. They are probably the Mardesic brothers in 1890. established the first Dalmatian fish processing plant in Komiža, as it stands on behalf of the company. In any case, fish was processed at the factory only at Vis. 1923 there are seven such factories in Komiža. 

The Mardešić brothers factory made sardines in oil (filetti), which soon gained their voice outside Dalmatia as well, thanks to their quality and specialty of preparation. Thus, Komiža became the center of fishing and fish processing in the Adriatic. In 1908 there were 7 Komiža and two such factories in Vis. Thus, out of 23 fish canning factories in the whole of Dalmatia, ten were on the island of Vis, which is almost half of the total. Around 1930 The factories there produced 105 t of prepared fish, over half of all Dalmatian production. 1940 445 employees were employed in five factories.

It is assumed that since IV. The first shipyards in the Eastern Adriatic existed in Issa and Pharos. It is well known that there were many calafat for the English administrations of the island to repair the damaged warships and ships. The greater freedom of navigation and trade followed the arrival of Dalmatia under Austria (1797). The shipowners of Vis then had 24 sailboats with a capacity of 140-700, and the Komiža with 10 smaller sailboats (pelig, bracers, tartanels) carrying 150-500 Venetian old men. Russian pirates in early 1807. they seized as many as five excess trabakulas returning with a load of grain from Senj. In 1809, the surplus shipping companies had 14 peligas, 15 bracers and 81 gaitas. In 1830, the municipality of Vis had 146, and Komiža with 109 vessels of various kinds. Seven of the richest people of Vis and Komiža set up the association “Serafin Topic and Comrades” (Josip. Ante and Ivan Mardesic, and Ante, Marko and Mihajlo Lucic-Rocco). From the beginning, the Company has a 156-ton Višanin long-distance brisk schooner and a 203-ton long Serafino longboat brisk. The company soon became the largest shipowner in central and northern Dalmatia. Steamship on Vis dates back to 1890. Entrepreneur and shipowner Serafin Topic, son of wine wholesaler Ante. that year, he acquired a very fast steamboat of 354 brt (199 nrt) and 12 crew members. It was named "Villa". It established the weekly line between Korcula and Trieste on June 20th. It was the first steamboat in Dalmatia to be made of steel by a large coastal vessel. The following year, Topić procures a second steamer called "Knight", of 69 nrt (173 bar). and founded by the Serafin Topić Steamship Society and friends based in Vis, the Steamboat “Vila” has maintained the Split-Trieste line twice a week since 1893. And from the next, Komiža-Trieste. In 1900, three of Topić's steamboats were assigned to large vessels and two to small coastal vessels. Until 1907 the headquarters of the Society remained in Vis, with a branch in Trieste. The following year, it merged with the rest of central and northern Dalmatia into the large Dalmatia company based in Zadar. During the First World War, the steamer “Vila” was sunk. They were cherished in the 18th century. For centuries they knew how to sail like sailors on Dubrovnik ships. Surprisingly, the island gave Vis a few trained captains of long voyage.

During the two world wars, a 19 km long Vis-Komiza road was built. The carriages were almost nonexistent on the island. The local store peaked for the English administrations of the island and then faded. The British brought to Vis ships seized with cargo of grain, wine and oil. which was then sold to the islanders at much lower prices. Back then, there were many shops on the island selling various goods and even jewelry and watches. There were (1812) as many as 14 drink and coffee shops. After the arrival of the island for the second time under Austria, trade developed slowly. In 1841, there were 8 speculators and 12 traders on the island, and for ten years there were as many as forty different traders, most of them grocers.

When the Syracuse founded Issa, its original, one might say, was the sole role of exchanging goods between the eastern Adriatic coast and the rest of the Mediterranean. It could be said that the Isaiahs lived first and foremost from the trade. They mostly sold their wine, but so did some other island products. They imported everything that the island lacked, especially grain. It is known for certain that the pottery was imported from Apulia. The trading of the population can only be traced back to the beginning of the Venetian rule of the island. According to one report from 1644. Revenues from the customs of Vis and Komiža were far higher than those of the island of Hvar due to the sales of fish. In addition to salted fish, the Višani exported surplus wine production throughout the entire Venetian rule. The Višani then sold their surplus carob and honey throughout Dalmatia, and occasionally transported considerable quantities of firewood to Venice. The Vishans used to buy olive oil, mostly in southern Italy. Sea salt requirements were mostly met in Venice and Piran, more for salting fish than for eating. Vis became a major trading hub, where various smuggled goods were coming, which also went in the opposite direction (during the time of the English). The fishermen of Vis from Viš were selling the most fish on the Italian Adriatic coast at that time. After 1930. fresh fish were exported to Italy. Preserved fish were mostly bought by Greeks. In 1935, they were collecting all the stocks of salted fish from the two previous years, which greatly improved the independent economic situation of the fishermen in excess.

The island's other export product was wine. In the Napoleonic epoch, the shipwrecks of Vis were mostly selling wine in Senj and Rijeka, where they bought grain for the money they received. Some Merchant Whiskeys (the Mardešić brothers, Antun Topić) have since started to wholesale wine, which lasted until the First World War and even after. The trading companies of the Mardešić brothers and the Dojmi family sold it most in Vienna. Hungarian traders knew, as in 1891, that they would come to the island and pick up all the wine there. In 1892 the competition for Italian wines was growing stronger, and the sales of surplus were in proportion.

In 1913, 815 ships sailed from the port of Komiža with over 200,000 tons of payload, and from the surplus 1,259 with 314,257 tons of total payload. Only in 1935/1936. In the port of Vis, the foundations of the coast and the deepening of the sea were carried out, and then the underwater walls were reinforced. In Vis and Komiža, port health offices were established in the first half of the 19th century. century, as well as customs.
In order to maintain the maritime trade relations of the islands with the foreign world in Vis, at the end of the Venetian administration, the naval consulates of some foreign countries were established. The subjects of the Pontifical State mostly did business with fishermen from Vis, so this particular state, on December 6, 1784, was the only one to do so. established its Vice-Consulate in Vis, which Austria did five years later. The Vishans first exhibited their products at the World Exhibition in Vienna in 1857, when some Dojmi received praise from the organizers for the presented liqueurs. As early as the 1970s, Dr. Dojmi de Lupis established and recognized the fact that Vis had a better climate than Sorrento. As early as 1885. Boat excursionists visit Biševo, which is the first group visit to this extraordinarily interesting natural beauty.

 

end of article

 

Development of the Vis Island economy in the past
Šime PERIČIĆ
(selection from original scientific article selected by Bosko Budisavljevic)

The second sequel

 

Small livestock (sheep, goats) were present there in antiquity. On the islands of Hvar and Vis in 1824. 2,600 goats were grazed, which was considered a peril for their plants and crops. This leads to the realization that after 1827 the number of sheep has fallen sharply on the island and that the number of goats has increased. In addition to small treasures, the population then began to hold donkeys, mules and horses, and also a smaller number of cattle and pigs. Only since the 1920s has beekeeping grown on the island when the Austrian authorities vigorously advocate it. Since then, the production of smaller quantities of honey and yellow wax has been recorded there, somehow in both municipalities. It is known that 1,827 eyes of honey and 709 eyes of wax were made on the island at that time, which was a very large amount. In 1910, over one thousand hives were recorded in the political district of Hvar, so it was assumed that a good part of them were on the island of Vis. It was then that the "swan singing" of that activity on the island followed, which was then almost completely neglected. By the middle of XIX. the mulberry silk on the island was grown only for domestic purposes. Raw home-made silk and knit socks and gloves were made from homework. This production came to life around I860. when the great promotion of the Austrian authorities in this regard followed. That year, the production of silkworm cocoon on the island reached £ 800. Immediately afterwards she begins to faint. In 1861, 372 were made in the municipality of Vis, and only 6 libri bushes were made in Komiža, and the following year 196 libri were made in the former and none in the latter. Surely she never recovered again, since the latter reports do not even mention her.

In the first half of XVIII. century a fair amount of timber was occasionally hauled to Venice. Only in the decade 1735-1744. there were 62 ships on the island, 3,848 were taken there, and in the next ten years (1745-1754) as many as 15,737 quarts of firewood, especially in bread bakeries.

On the Isean coins from III. BC and reindeer, which may mean that there were these forest animals at that time. Furthermore, in the Middle Ages, falconry was common in Vis and Biševo. How significant this was also shown by the fact that it was leased.

Fishermen from the island of Vis can only be traced back to the 15th century. After the invasion of the Catalans in 1483, when there remained, a mountain population would be said to have moved to the two largest ports - St. Juraj and Komiža, fishing gets a significant boost. The comedians became the most common use of "army" (a type of fishing nets). Catching these nets was very effective, causing the envy of "traters" (another type of fishing nets). One report from 1559 states that the annual revenue of the Hvar commune is 80,000 ducats, 20,000 of which were obtained by fishing, thanks in large part to the fishermen of the island of Vis. Only from the revenues from the Trešnjevac hunting ground near Biševo was built in 1585 in Komiža the fortress of Sv. Nicholas. The most by-catch was reported to have taken place in 1833, when about 50 million anchovies fished around Bisevo alone in the fishermen of Komiža.  Already in 1859, the fishermen there had 244 boats, 46 turf and 106 troops, more Komiža than surplus ones. The value of blue fish caught by fishermen there in the four-year period 1857-1860. it amounted to 532,427 fiorines, which made up almost half of the whole of Dalmatia. During the Italian occupation of the island the catch of anchovy was very weak. Despite the fact that the 1923 Brijuni Convention restricted Komiža's right to fish, when only 40 of their boats with anchoring trawlers were allowed to go to the waters of Palagruza, which belonged to Italy, fishing was a significant source of income for the island population. Already in 1859, the fishermen there had 244 boats, 46 turf and 106 troops, more Komiža than surplus ones.

It was not until the First World War that greater attention was paid to tuna fish by island fishermen. Thus, in 1911, there are 15 tonid trawls on the island, most of them stagnant. Tuna catches are unknown. That catch continued in the mid-war, but even then he was so modest that he was hardly worth mentioning. Although lobsters were hunted in the waters of Vis, in 1894 Frane Balica established an artificial breeding farm in Komiža. His pond quickly became famous for the Monarchy's quality of farmed lobsters, and Archduke Carlo asked him to be the supplier of the lobster court. All this testifies that from the end of the last century until the Second World War Komiza was the center of fishing in Dalmatia.

(end of second sequel)

 
 
 
 
 
 
Development of the Vis Island economy in the past
Šime PERIČIĆ
(selection from original scientific article selected by Bosko Budisavljevic)
 
The first sequel.
 
 
The island goes down in history as soon as it was colonized by Greeks from Sicily, with at least 600 people. Some claim that in ancient times, during the Roman rule of the island, 7,000 people continued:
 
After Croats migrated to the island, they merged with the ancient Greek-Roman population for centuries. As early as the 10th century, Vis was a completely Croatian city. Then the Venetians attack and destroy it and take part of its population into slavery. Komiža was first mentioned in XII. century.
 
The attack of the Catalans on the island in 1483 cost it the loss of a large number of inhabitants in the interior of the island (Velo selo), and since then their population has gradually settled the ports of Vis and Komiža. At the beginning of the 16th century, there were 1,000 or 1,200 inhabitants on the island, which could reach 1,500 people. The first more reliable figure comes from 1637, which indicates that the town of Vis has only about 1,000 inhabitants. The opportunity for the new population to settle in the middle of the 17th c. centuries for the duration of the Kandy War. At that time, about 40 families from the coast of Makarska moved to the island. It formed a special group, the so-called. "New inhabitants", endowed with some privileges by the Venetian authorities. 1698 1,800 people in Komiža alone. In 1736 the settlement of Vis was inhabited by 2,000. and 1,338 inhabitants in Komiža. 1782 in the three hamlets of Vis there are 460 families with 2,300, and in Komiža there are 320 families with 1,460 members.
 
The English administration of the island (since 1809) attracted a large number of adventurers and businessmen, and in a few years the number of its inhabitants increased to as much as 12,000. In 1813, there were 4,270 inhabitants in Vis. Certainly similar was in Komiža, so at that time the island was probably inhabited by about 8,000 people. In 1910 there were 10,107 inhabitants on the island.
 
 
It is interesting, however, that in 1928 an attempt was made to grow various peas in the Komiza fields. This proved to be useful and lucrative. By 1937, so in ten years, as many as 25 wagons of winter peas were produced there, mostly sold off the island.
 
Greek philosopher Agatarhial as early as III. century BC, a wine is being produced on Issa (Vis), an island on the Adriatic, which compares with all other then known wines. Moreover, it proved to be the best of all. In 1771, A. Fortis visited the island and noted that it was of medium quality wine. However, the peak of grapevine cultivation on the island came about 1890, when it covered an area of ​​4,697 acres (1,438 in Komiža municipality and 3,259 in Vis). Namely, it is known that in 1888. the island produced close to 100,000 hectoliters. almost four times more than twenty years earlier. At the 1903 exhibition in Ghent. Vis wine represented Dalmatia. This made the voice of the quality of excess wines even more pronounced. During the First World War, phylloxera almost destroyed the island's vineyards, before it had no one to cultivate and protect them from the pest. On the island in 1938. as many as 150,000 hl of wine were produced, which is a highlight of its production in the past.
 
In the 18th century, the belief of the island population was that the climate there was not conducive to the cultivation of olives, and therefore did not grow it, despite the vehement persuasion of the Venetian authorities. No other fruit, except carob, until XVIII. centuries were not cultivated to a considerable extent. During this century, there were fewer southern fruit trees (lemons, oranges) and pears on the island. The carob has been grown on the barren, uncultivated soil of the island since Greek colonization, which, of course, continued afterwards. However, it is known that in 1923. there were 53,542 carob trees in the Hvar district, of which a considerable number certainly grew on Vis. However, there is a claim by a competent expert that in the interwar period, in the birth year, only the population of Komiža municipality reads over 20 wagons of carob. In addition to carob, the island lacked some other fruits - figs, cherries, pears, fairy tales and others. In the mid-19th century, 1,600 fig trees and 700 bay trees grew on the island. At that time, more attention was paid to the cultivation of ants. There were 450 of them in 1852, and in the following years several thousand of her young would be planted. Their cultivation was intended exclusively for the production of silkworms, that is, silk.
 
(end of first sequel)

 

 

 

ANATOMY OF THE ISLAND

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The Association of Anatomy of Islands - Research and Development Center was established in 2011 on the island of Vis.

The activities of the Anatomy Association of  Islands in the period 2012-2016 can be followed by clicking ARCHIVE at the top right of the cover page.

There are all the information from international symposia and workshops, summaries of all presentations, biographies of all participants, student works (24 works), videotapes and video footage of all presentations and roundtables.

For the Anatomy of Islands of 2012 - 2016, the association received the ARTUR 2016 Award of the Society of Architects of Zagreb.

 

The Association of Anatomy of Islands, in cooperation with Dobre Dobričević, organized an international student workshop in Lastovo in 2017.

After that, the first international symposium and workshop in 2018 was also organized on Lastovo.

The Lastovo program is also planned for the next four years.

Activities in 2017 and 2018 can be seen by 2018 in the top right corner of the cover.

Activities in 2019 will be able to be followed by 2019.

 

All suggestions and comments and inquiries can be sent to email info@anatomija-otoka.com

 

We wish everyone a pleasant and successful 2019 year.

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